This copybook is in the familiar form of early nineteenth-century
composition books, the kind commonly used in elementary schools.
According to my memory such books could be entirely blank, except
for lines to guide the writer, or they could have writing samples
on the top line of each page for the user to copy repeatedly,
line after line, in order to learn to write not only legibly,
but also gracefully.
Sewed inside the covers of this copybook are twenty-eight
pages of the recordings of a meticulous and artistically oriented
person who printed everything therein in beautiful Roman (not
German) script, using mostly black ink, but sometimes using red
ink for alternate lines or alternate verses of poetry.
The pages of composition, numbered from 1 to 24, are sewn
inside the above-described covers. Following those pages are
appended two sheets taken from a slightly smaller copybook. These
provide the vital statistics of some of the persons buried in
the Amish cemetery in Fairfield County, Ohio, and elsewhere.
Some are obviously relatives.
Inserted loosely between pages of the booklet is a slip of
paper with four lines in the same handwriting as those on the
bound and numbered pages of the booklet, translated as follows:
On the other side of this inserted leaflet are the vital statistics
of what appear to be those of the composer/copier of this entire
This booklet came down to David Yoder from his forebears,
but at this time (March 5, 2002) he does not know the route it
took through the generations to end up in his hands. He has not
yet been able even to identify Leah and Elizabeth, named above
as donees of this composition book. Further inquiry should unfold
Additional evidence that the composer/copier was Jonathan
Zug may be found at the bottom of page nine of the booklet (at
the end of a poem) where Jonathan Zug signs his name, evidently
as author, and indicates the year 1888 in which
the poem was composed.
This Jonathan Zug is clearly the one identified by Gingerich
and Kreider (Amish and Amish Mennonite Genealogies, pp.
554 and 564) by the Code no. ZK2244.
According to that inserted leaflet (see p. 1 above) Jonathan
Zug was born in Mifflin County, Pennsylvania, on December 21,
1809, although Gingerich and Kreiders Genealogy says
that he was born on December 2 of that year. He was the son of
David Zook (1780-1863) and Anna Lantz (1778-1868). In 1818 he
moved with his parents to Wayne County, Ohio. In 1833, at 23
or 24 years of age, he moved to Fairfield County, Ohio. This
move may have been made around the time of his marriage to Nancy
King (1817-93). He may have been ordained first as a deacon for
the Amish congregation in Fairfield County, but sometime between
1836 and 1862 he was ordained a minister there and served until
about 1877. Then he moved to Holmes County, Ohio, he being one
of the last of the Amish settlers to leave Fairfield County.
In Holmes County he ministered in the Martins Creek congregation
and was ordained a bishop there in 1890. At that time he would
have been about seventy years old!
Fourteen children were born to Jonathan and Nancy, but most
of them died in childhood, and only three ever married. One of
their children (Christian, 1842-62) evidently joined the Union
armed forces during the Civil War, was wounded in battle, and
died near Louisville, Kentucky, on his way home.
Jonathan Zooks adult years, during most of which he
was active as a minister in the Amish church, included the period
of the Great Schism (ca. 1855-65) in that denomination.
Some of the Amish leaders wanted to make what we (in 2002) would
consider a few small changes in the Ordnung of the church,
but other leaders felt these changes were concessions to the
"world." In an attempt to keep the opposing factions
together, some Amish ministers organized and promoted a series
of annual Amish ministers meetings. These meetings continued
from 1862 to 1878. Minister Jonathan Zook attended the meetings
of 1862, 1864, 1868, 1870, and 1873. That he continued
to attend some of these conferences after 1865 (after the change-minded
leaders were in full control) indicates that he chose to join
the faction that was ready to make those changes in the Ordnung.
When he moved to Holmes County in about 1877 he joined the
Martins Creek Amish Mennonite congregation. This step adds confirmation
to other indications that he had chosen to affiliate already
in the 1860s with these change-minded Amish, who took on the
name Amish Mennonite.
The above biographical sketch of Jonathan Zook is based largely
on that of Steven R. Estes in Paton Yoder and Steven R. Estes,
Proceedings of the Amish Ministers Meetings, 1862-1878,
p. 385, but also draws from David Luthy, The Amish in America,
Settlements that Failed, 1840-1860, pp. 349-355, and from
Gingerich and Kreider, Amish and Amish Mennonite Genealogies,
pp. 554 and 564.
Have the best time now.
[Either] eternal joy or pain.
Whoever may want to be numbered among the blest [or saved]
Must already here [on earth] be blessed [or saved].
Come to Jesus today.
Offers grace free of charge.
Heavenly atmosphere forever.
He verily blesses [saves].
Listen to him as the safe guard.
Into the blessed destination.
Be careful with your heart let no sins lodge therein.
JESUS LITTLE LAMB
Since I am Jesus little lamb
I rejoice only
In my Good Shepherd
Who surely knows how to be hospitable to me
Who loves me, knows me,
And calls me by name.
Under his gentle staff
I go out in, and have
Unspeakably sweet pasturage
So that I suffer no want,
And so if I am thirsty
He leads me to the fount.
Should I not then, be happy,
Lucky lamb that I am?
For after these beautiful days
I will finally be carried into
The Shepherds arms and bosom
Amen, Yes my good fortune is great!
March 20, 1888
THE GOOD SHEPHERD
Do you not see on Gods pastures
That loving Shepherd drawing [you]?
Do you not see him on bloody trails,
Troubling himself for his sheep?
See that a lamb has wandered away,
And he hastens with rapid pace;
Leaves the others all in a heap;
Searches for his lost one.
Carried home on his shoulders,
The true Shepherd brings it.
No one may be anxiously fearful anymore,
Be it [the sheep] ever so far confused.
Lord my God, on your pastures,
By your waters lead me.
[Whether] it be with joy or with pain,
Lead me securely.
[TO] THE CHILDREN
You children young, you children small,
You surely must not fail us.
You must be the tender stem
In this wreath of the soul.
An old heart is adamant as a rock,
Encircled with high battlements
That makes it difficult to conquer,
And for the Lord to win.
But you are rather like the earth,
When spring breezes blow,
Then it is loose, fresh, and rich,
To sow seed therein.
Now yet you feel the grace deeply,
Which you experience from God
That he calls you in this life,
Here under Christian surroundings.
So that he gave you to the parents,
Who profess to be redeemed/saved,
And who can be a shield and staff
To you children in life.
[So] that to you the loving Jesus child
Has become a brother
So that all who belong to him
Will be raised to heaven.
Now always, as he once did
On his lifes pathway,
This dear man of mercy
Gives you children his blessing.
All this good fortune is not bestowed
On the poor heathen child.
[Who] from the first day sees and hears
Nothing but misery and sins.
It [he/she] is [burdened] with heavy and great depravity,
And goes to the grave with it.
And does not have such a fortunate lot
As you and I have.
Indeed, you beloved Christian child,
You have a better life;
So now be also well disposed
To those who gave it to you.
And thank him continually, the good Lord,
With deed and word,
And think also of those who yet are far
From his gates of mercy.
No, no, you children young and small,
You dare not fail us;
You will be the tender bud
In this wreath of souls.
Following is the writers paraphrase of the story of
Elijahs challenge to the prophets of Baal as recorded in
1 Kings 18.
Come here my people on Carmels pinnacle;
Today there will be the selection of a king;
Today you will know before the middle of the evening
Whether God, Jehovah or Baal,
Whom you so long on both sides,
Made love to [both?] Baal and Ashtaroth;
Come, reflect on the Lord today
And turn around [return] to your God.
Jesus live in my house
[And] nevermore depart.
Live therein with thy grace,
[Fourth line missing]
O you great man of mercy,
Come in with your blessing
May peace, joy, good fortune, and well-being [or salvation]
Come into my house to share.
Just as Job and Abraham
Received your rich blessing,
Even so give me the protection of
Your gentle blessing.
Jesus, live in my heart.
If I endure fear and pain,
If fear and affliction press,
So help me, O faithful God.
If I have riches no more;
Nevertheless, the heavenly gift remains with me.
[And] if I even yet endure affliction,
Nevertheless the heavenly joy remains with me.
[Signed] Jonathan Zug, 1888
THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
With only a couple of minor exceptions, these two pages
in Jonathan Zugs Copybook are identical to the Ten Commandments
as printed in Martin Luthers translation of the Bible.
The reader is referred to English translations of Exodus
20 for a translation of the Ten Commandments.
These two pages constitute the centerfold of Zugs
copybook. Most of each page is occupied by a diamond-shaped quadrangle
in which are hand-printed letters of the alphabet, lined up vertically
as well as horizontally. The four corners of both pages are filled
with Scripture texts, each printed within the outline of a heart.
They are mostly translated below by using the A.V. [Note:
The letters in the diamond on page 12 read Fuerchte Gott
(Fear God). Letters are repeated often. The letters in the diamond
on page 13 read Liebe Gott (Love God). Letters are repeated
[p. 12, upper left and lower left]
The heavens declare the glory of God and the firmament shows
his handwork. (Ps. 19:1] Day unto day uttereth speech
[p. 12, upper right and lower right]
and night unto night showeth knowledge. There is no speech
nor language where their voice is not heard. (Ps. 19:2, 3]. Their
[p. 13, upper left and lower left]
gone out through all the earth and their words to the end
of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun; and
[p. 13, upper right and lower right]
is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth
as a strong man to run a race. His going forth is from
Here J. Z. ran out of space within the eight hearts in
the corners of pp. 12-13, so he ended the quotation from Ps.
19 on two full lines at the bottom of p. 13.
the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it,
and there is nothing hid from
Here J. Z. runs out of lined space, and thus the quotation
from Ps. 19 breaks off in the middle of a sentence!
CHILDREN COME IN
Come little children, gather around,
And get acquainted with Jesus
Come for sure, and see how good he is,
How gentle and faithful; come call him Master.
Oh, see his friendliness
As he leans down to you,
How affectionately he himself offers
To show you goodness always.
He wants to teach you, softly and kindly,
To live according to Gods wisdom; he calls:
Dear little child, come, and become devout;
I want to give you everything.
Indeed, then, come children; do come here
To Jesus nice school; listen, learn,
And follow his doctrines, which lessons are
Not difficult; now set down here,
On his chair of wisdom.
How good it is, how nice and appropriate,
How lovely to observe,
When children are properly
Obedient, and want only
To enter Jesus school.
Here they learn with zeal and delight
Right praying, reading, and singing
And seek to conduct their life
In godliness with Jesus.
Oh, such children have it good
They will live eternally in the kingdom of heaven
With happy heart where Jesus
Rewards the devout children.
They will live there in great joy
Every day and hour. No anxiety,
No fear, no sadness, no pain
Or hurt will encircle them any more.
So learn eagerly, little children,
And love Jesus affectionately. Serve him
As your God and Lord, and flee far away
From everything which is only sinful.
Do not follow the counsel of evil children,
Who run and play, who
Only ridicule your Jesus, [and] do not love God,
[And] do not want to be a scholar of Jesus.
Get thoroughly acquainted with Jesus,
And sit at his feet; there give him
The right hand and say Savior,
Oh, let me kiss you.
Hang on to him as little children,
On to his loving arms and say
He should be gracious to you children,
And be moved to pity.
[That he] should bless you with understanding,
So that you will shun the evil, that he should make
You rightly informed; as a Savior,
That he frees you from sin.
Yes, beseech him, he will surely
Give you joy and love. His loving,
Gentle, sweet yoke, yet as children,
To carry with [serious] consideration.
He will fill your young heart
With his love, so that it will steadfastly meditate
Heavenwards; and all joking
Scorns his will.
So children, hang on to him affectionately
Oh, hang on to him by the hand, and say:
O Jesus, lead me now, and lead me henceforth,
Oh, lead us until the end.
Lead us out of this wasteland
Of this wicked world turmoil, into the Fatherland,
Where we will enjoy, oh faithful Jesus,
The glory of heaven.
O child, consider with concentration
How we, little grains of seed, flow.
Then see [who] you flow with,
Just as we are made to turn to dust
Will you also wear out.
Indeed, we flow very gently,
Yet the seeds fall
By day and by night, far and wide.
Until from all of us
The last one has fallen.
The last short hour will also fall to you.
Always practice honesty and integrity
Until your cold grave;
And depart no fingers breadth
Away from Gods way.
WHAT PLEASES GOD
What is pleasing to God, my gentle child,
Accept happily; if it storms like the wind
And thunders [so that] everything roars and crushes,
Then be confident, for you are experiencing
What pleases God.
The best will is Gods will;
On this point rest calmly and quietly;
This gives you refreshment within all the time
[You] desire nothing, but only alone
What pleases God.
The most sagacious mind is Gods mind;
What mortals think falls down,
Comes to nothing, weak, tired and weary,
Often does what is wicked and seldom that
Which pleases God.
The meekest/most devout spirit is Gods Spirit,
Who does not want evil to be done to anyone.
He blesses when the wicked world
Scolds and pursues [?flucht] us;
[They are those] who never strive after
What pleases God.
The cheerfulest heart is Gods heart,
[It] throws everything distressful behind,
Protects and guards day and night
Those who respect the noble and the holy
What pleases God.
He is the sovereign in the highest,
On him rest our weal and woe.
He holds the world in his hand,
On the other hand [he] carries us [over] sea and land
As it pleases God.
His army, the stars, sun, and moon,
Go off and on, as they keep doing;
The earth is fruitful; without fail
It produces corn, fruit juice wine, and oil [? Oel]
As it pleases God.
All is his, wisdom and understanding;
To him it is known and familiar,
Both when we think and practice evil,
As well as when we do good and love
As it pleases God.
If you are scorned by everyone,
Scoffed by your enemy and [they] sit on you,
Be cheerful, for Jesus Christ
Will uphold you, for in you [there] is that
Which pleases God.
Faith lays hold on the highest kindness,
Hope brings and produces patience;
Locks both deep within ones heart
So that your whole life becomes
Pleasing to God.
Your heritage is in the heavenly throne,
Here is the scepter, kingdom, and crown,
Here you will smell, hear, and see,
Here will come to pass without end
That which is pleasing to God.
On the bottom half of page 20 are written three
verses from Sirach (in the Apocrypha). The translations
of the first two of which are copied from The New English
Bible with the Apocrypha (Cambridge University Press, 1971.)
A kind word counts more than a rich present; with a gracious
man you will find both. Sirach 18:17.
(P. 141 of Apocrypha section of above indicated translation.)
Win your neighbors confidence when he is poor, and you
will share the joy of his prosperity. Sirach 22:23
Although the above verse from Sirach is referenced as 22:28
by Zook and corresponds to that number in Luthers Bible,
in the above indicated translation it is numbered Sirach 22:23.
Oh, how wise you were in your youth, and were full of understanding
as the waters cover the land. Sirach 47:16.
At the very bottom of p. 20 is a verse from Proverbs (called
The Sayings of Solomon in Luthers Bible), as follows:
Bow down thine ear and hear the words of the wise, and apply
thine heart unto my knowledge.
An Untitled Poem
I gladly go to school,
And observe carefully,
That it is necessary for me to learn
For my lifework (career).
I care for and honor the church
As the beloved place.
Therein I hear the teaching
Out of Gods holy word.
And presses afresh on the heart
[That] before God the Lord I am
In sincere prayer.
I know he hears it gladly.
He accepts for himself my youth
Into his loving kindness,
And strengthens me in every virtue,
On lifes pathway.
The following four-line verse stands alone at the bottom
of p. 21.
The beginning of sins path is indeed
A brighter way through the pasture,
But his defection only produces danger,
His end, night and dreadful.
On the right-hand margin of this page is written:
A riddle for all.
Wrestle over what I have to report:
A strange company of people came into the land,
Twenty men all decent/proper [seuberlich].
Although not one was like the other
Not one could speak an audible word [laut Wort].
Therefore they themselves could not take revenge;
Yet they were also of the good kind [of persons]
Yet very useful in that time.
They brought six interpreters with them,
Very highly learned people, with good gifts
The first astonished rending mouth afar;
The second strode like a little child;
The third whistled like a mouse;
The fourth cried out like a wagoner;
The fifth did like a clock;
The sixth fulfilled the arts well;
Therewith they cried out:
Yet hear! The world has not yet passed away.
Who did signs and live, and wonders and died [?]
What is the mans name whose staff turned into a snake[?]
Children love and grieve
Not through mistrust of their friends
Who love you constantly unfathomably
And mean it from the heart.
Christian members arouse you again,
Stay in the faith wholly united.
Approach freely to the fire
Of this great Jesus-love.
Do not stay away; [may] he gladly help,
And fill you with holy desire.
Lord, we entreat, let it happen,
Give such ardor, please do give
To his poor [mortals], full compassion,
Give to you, as you are;
Implore him, live in him
[This] is the highest happiness.
O you beloved, [may] Jesus drive you.
May your whole heart be consecrated.
Look over there at a field in the spring;
Enter at the time of its colorful blooming;
Where is there in the garden and in the wooded area
A leaflet like no other?
Yet the rose quarrels not with the carnation,
Nor the oak with the beech tree.
Both know: we bloom and wither
In gentle sunlight.
What is the name of the man whom the Lord answered out of
To whom did Isaiah say: "Put your house in order, for
you will die and not remain living?"
Who was it that said, "but I and my house will serve
What was the name of the man whose staff flowered/bloomed
green and [who] carried sheaves?
Who considered iron as straw and brass as decayed wood?
Which prophet tried to excuse himself from that which was
assigned to him to do because he was not well prepared?
Following p. 24 are inserted four pages from a slightly
smaller-sized copybook. These pages list the names and vital
statistics of some of the people who were buried in the Amish
Mennonite Cemetery near Colfax in Fairfield County, Ohio. Jonathan
Zook lived here from about 1833 to about 1877. The names and
vital statistics were probably copied from tombstone inscriptions.
Graves in our graveyard in Fairfield County, Ohio
First page of tombstone inscriptions
MAGDALENA TROYER died 1844; 16 yrs., 11 mo., 20 days old.
MARIA JODER died July 26, 1844; 30 years old.
HEINRICH STUTZMANN died Sept. 22, 1845; 52 yrs., 5 mo., 28
LYDIA STUTZMANN died Nov. 26, 1847; 16 yrs., 5 mo., 24 days
DANIEL STUTZMAN died Dec. 27, 1847; 47 yrs., 6 mo., 28 day
PETER ZUG died Aug. 28, 1844; 15 yrs., 1 mo., 11 days old.
NOAH STUTZMANN died Aug. 7, 1855; 24 yrs., 11 mo., 22 days
DAVID STUTZMANN died Sept. 25, 1855; 65 yrs., 5 mo., 6 days
LEAH STUTZMANN died Oct. 24, 1861; 38 yrs., 5 mo., 2 days
Second page of tombstone inscriptions
CHRISTIAN ZUG died Nov. 8, 1855; 50 yrs., 23 days old.
DAVID HERZLER died Feb. 23, 1855; 65 yrs., 11 mo., 22 days
BENJAMIN LANTZ died March 22, 1855; 21 yrs., 4 mo. old.
FRENI BEYLER died June 14, 1849; 23 yrs., 3 days old.
LYDIA, Jonathan STUTZMANNS wife died Jan. 28, 1851;
20 yrs., 4 mo., 14 days old.
JOHN STUTZMAN died Nov. 29, 1864; 79 yrs., 12 days old.
BARBARA [STUTZMAN], his wife died March 24, 1867; 78 yrs.,
9 mo. old.
SARAH, Joseph KÖNIGS wife died Nov. 23, 1863; 49
yrs., 4 mo., 2l days old.
DAVID ZUG died Aug. 8, 1863; 83 yrs., 4 mo., 14 days old.
ANN [ZUG], his wife died Feb. 11, 1868; 90 yrs., 10 days old.
FRENI HERZLER died Nov. 4, 1868; 77 yrs., 3 mo., 12 days old.
LEVI KÖNIG died Jan. 11, 1862; 19 yrs., 1 mo., 7 days
REBECA KÖNIG died Feb. 9, 1864; 19 yrs., 1 mo., 15 days
Third page of tombstone. inscriptions
ELIZABETH MILLER died Oct. 15, 1861; 73 yrs., 6 [mo.], 2 days
DAVID KURZ died Aug. 7, 1863; 22 yrs., 8 days old.
ELIZABETH KÖNIG died March 28, 1867; 78 yrs., 6 mo.,
6 days old.
NOAH ZUG died July 4, 1866; 2 yrs., 7 mo., 29 days old.
JOSEPH KÖNIG died Oct. 12, 1873; 64 yrs., 8 mo. old
SÄLLY PLANK died Sept. 29, 1870; 66 yrs., 7 mo. old.
BARBARA STUTZMANN died Dec. 8, 1871; 56 yrs., 10 mo., 16 days
DAVID BEYLER died Dec. 21, 1871; 77 yrs., 3 [mo.], 12 days
JOSEPH KÖNIG, JR. died Dec. 20, 1875; 29 yrs., 6 [mo.],
8 days old.
DANIEL SCHLABACH died 1874.
EMME BARNTREGER [died] Sept. 22, 1878; 21 yrs., 21 days old.
JACOB TROYER in Wayne Co. died Nov. 23, 1877; 77 yrs., 3 mo.,
17 days old.
ISAAC LANZ in Noble Co., Ind., died Apri1 1, 1875; 48 yrs.,
3 mo., 19 days old.
SEM KÖNIG in Laure[n]ce Co., Pa., died Sept. 16, 1876;
57 years old.
Fourth page of tombstone. inscriptions
SAMUEL PLANK, in Logan Co, [Ohio,] died Dec. 11, 1878; 70
yrs., 4 mo., 21 days old.
Uncle SAMUEL LANZ in Champaign Co., [Ohio,] died March 11,
1870; 70 yrs, 10 mo., 20 days old.
Uncle SOLOMON LANZ in Noble Co., Ind., died Apri1 4, 1870;
64 yrs., 2 mo., 24 days old.
LYDIA YODER in Cass Co., Mo. died Feb. 8, 1864; 48 yrs., 1
mo., 10 days old.
SUSANNA HERZLER died Oct. 17, 1865; 53 yrs, 11 mo., 23 days
DAVID ZUG in McLean Co., Ill., died July [Jule]
10, 1872; 64 yrs., 5 mo., 27 days old.
SAMUEL ZUG died in Noble Co., Ind.
JACOB ZUG in Elkhart Co., Ind., died Jan. 9, 1880; 60 yrs,
11 mo., 13 days old.
SARAH STUTZMANN in Elkhart Co., Ind., died Dec. 10, 1879;
84 yrs., 5 mo., 21 days old.
BARBARZ ZUG died Feb. 14, 1880; 66 [yrs.], 3 mo., 10 days
Paton Yoder, Goshen, Ind., known for his
work on Amish and Amish Mennonites, has most recently produced,
Proceedings of the Amish Ministers' Meetings, 1862-1878,
with Steven R. Estes (Mennonite Historical Society, 1999)
(This copybook is in the possession of David
and Janet Yoder, Middlebury, Indiana)